“Make at least half of your grains whole grains.”
Any food made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley or another cereal grain is a grain product. Bread, pasta, oatmeal, breakfast cereals, tortillas, and grits are examples of grain products.


WHOLE GRAINS & REFINED GRAINS
Grains are divided into 2 subgroups, Whole Grains and Refined Grains.
Whole grains contain the entire grain kernel ― the bran, germ, and endosperm.
Examples of whole grains include:
whole-wheat flour
bulgur (cracked wheat)
oatmeal
whole cornmeal
brown rice


Refined grains have been milled, a process that removes the bran and germ. This is done to give grains a finer texture and improve their shelf life, but it also removes dietary fiber, iron, and many B vitamins. 


Some examples of refined grain products are:
white flour
de-germed cornmeal
white bread
white rice


Most refined grains are enriched. This means certain B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid) and iron are added back after processing. Fiber is not added back to enriched grains. Check the ingredient list on refined grain products to make sure that the word "enriched" is included in the grain name. Some food products are made from mixtures of whole grains and refined grains.


WHOLE GRAINS
amaranth
brown rice
buckwheat
bulgur (cracked wheat)
millet
oatmeal
popcorn
rolled oats
quinoa


REFINED GRAINS
cornbread*
corn tortillas*
couscous*
crackers*
flour tortillas*
grits
noodles*
pitas*
pretzels
sorghum
triticale
whole grain barley
whole grain cornmeal
whole rye
whole wheat bread
whole wheat crackers
whole wheat pasta
whole wheat sandwich
buns and rolls
whole wheat tortillas
wild rice
Ready-to-eat breakfast
cereals
whole wheat cereal flakes
muesli
white bread
white sandwich buns and
rolls
white rice
Pastas
spaghetti
macaroni
Ready-to-eat breakfast
cereals
corn flakes


WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO EAT GRAINS, ESPECIALLY WHOLE GRAINS?
Eating grains, especially whole grains, provides health benefits. People who eat whole grains as part of a healthy diet have a reduced risk of some chronic diseases. Grains provide many nutrients that are vital for the health and maintenance of our bodies.


HEALTH BENEFITS
Consuming whole grains as part of a healthy diet may reduce the risk of heart disease. Consuming foods containing fiber, such as whole grains, as part of a healthy diet, may reduce constipation. Eating whole grains may help with weight management. Eating grain products fortified with folate before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects during fetal development.


NUTRIENTS
Grains are important sources of many nutrients, including dietary fiber, several B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folate), and minerals (iron, magnesium, and selenium).
Dietary fiber from whole grains or other foods, may help reduce blood cholesterol levels and may lower risk of heart disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Fiber is important for proper bowel function. It helps reduce constipation and diverticulosis. Fiber-containing foods such as whole grains help provide a feeling of fullness with fewer calories.
The B vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin play a key role in metabolism – they help the body release energy from protein, fat, and carbohydrates. B vitamins are also essential for a healthy nervous system. Many refined grains are enriched with these B vitamins.
Folate (folic acid), another B vitamin, helps the body form red blood cells. Women of childbearing age who may become pregnant should consume adequate folate from foods, and in addition 400 mcg of synthetic folic acid from fortified foods or supplements. This reduces the risk of neural tube defects, spina bifida, and anencephaly during fetal development.
Iron is used to carry oxygen in the blood. Many teenage girls and women in their childbearing years have irondeficiency anemia. They should eat foods high in heme-iron (meats) or eat other iron containing foods along with foods rich in vitamin C, which can improve absorption of non-heme iron. Whole and enriched refined grain products are major sources of non-heme iron in American diets.
Whole grains are sources of magnesium and selenium. Magnesium is a mineral used in building bones and releasing energy from muscles. Selenium protects cells from oxidation. It is also important for a healthy immune system.


TIPS TO HELP YOU EAT WHOLE GRAINS
AT MEALS:
To eat more whole grains, substitute a wholegrain product for a refined product – such as eating whole-wheat bread instead of white bread or brown rice instead of white rice. It’s important to substitute the whole-grain product for the refined one, rather than adding the whole-grain product.
For a change, try brown rice or whole-wheat pasta. Try brown rice stuffing in baked green peppers or tomatoes and whole-wheat macaroni in macaroni and cheese.
Use whole grains in mixed dishes, such as barley in vegetable soup or stews and bulgur wheat in casserole or stirfries.
Create a whole grain pilaf with a mixture of barley, wild rice, brown rice, broth and spices. For a special touch, stir in toasted nuts or chopped dried fruit.
Experiment by substituting whole wheat or oat flour for up to half of the flour in pancake, waffle, muffin or other flour-based recipes. They may need a bit more leavening.
Use whole-grain bread or cracker crumbs in meatloaf.
Try rolled oats or a crushed, unsweetened whole grain cereal as breading for baked chicken, fish, veal cutlets, or eggplant parmesan.
Try an unsweetened, whole grain ready-to-eat cereal as croutons in salad or in place of crackers with soup.
Freeze leftover cooked brown rice, bulgur, or barley.
Heat and serve it later as a quick side dish.

AS SNACKS:
Snack on ready-to-eat, whole grain cereals such as toasted oat cereal.
Add whole-grain flour or oatmeal when making cookies or other baked treats.
Try 100% whole-grain snack crackers.
Popcorn, a whole grain, can be a healthy snack if made with little or no added salt and butter.


What to Look for on the Food Label:
Choose foods that name one of the following wholegrain ingredients first on the label’s ingredient list:
Whole Grain Ingredients
brown rice
buckwheat
bulgur
millet
oatmeal
quinoa
rolled oats
whole-grain barley
whole-grain corn
whole-grain sorghum
whole-grain triticale
whole oats
whole rye
whole wheat
wild rice
Foods labeled with the words "multi-grain," "stoneground," "100% wheat," "cracked wheat," "seven-grain," or "bran" are usually not whole-grain products.
Color is not an indication of a whole grain. Bread can be brown because of molasses or other added ingredients. Read the ingredient list to see if it is a whole grain.
Use the Nutrition Facts label and choose whole grain products with a higher % Daily Value (% DV) for fiber.
Many, but not all, whole grain products are good or excellent sources of fiber.
Read the food label’s ingredient list. Look for terms that indicate added sugars (such as sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, honey, malt syrup, maple syrup, molasses, or raw sugar) that add extra calories. Choose foods with fewer added sugars.
Most sodium in the food supply comes from packaged foods. Similar packaged foods can vary widely in sodium content, including breads. Use the Nutrition Facts label to choose foods with a lower % DV for sodium. Foods with less than 140 mg sodium per serving can be labeled as low sodium foods. Claims such as “low in sodium” or “very low in sodium” on the front of the food label can help you identify foods that contain less salt (or sodium).


WHOLE GRAIN TIPS FOR CHILDREN
Set a good example for children by eating whole grains with meals or as snacks.
Let children select and help prepare a whole grain side dish.
Teach older children to read the ingredient list on cereals or snack food packages and choose those with whole grains at the top of the list.


HOW MUCH IS MY ALLOWANCE FOR GRAIN PRODUCTS?
A person’s allowance for grain products depends on age, sex, and level of physical activity.

Information taken from the US Department of Agriculture

GRAINS

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