Copyright © Zapzat. All rights reserved.

 

EXERCISES FOR WEIGHT MANAGEMENT

RECOMMENDED AMOUNT OF MODERATE INTENSITY ACTIVITIES PER WEEK:
NOTE: HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISES REQUIRE LESS MINUTES PER WEEK.

150-299 Minutes / week (Moderate Intensity) =Health Benefits & Maintain Weight 300+Minutes / week (Moderate Intensity) =Extensive Health Benefits, Lose Weight, & Keep It Off.
MIE Equivalent = Moderate Intensity Equivalent
KEY EXERCISES FOR WEIGHT LOSS & MAINTAINING WEIGHT
Always check with your physician first, before you start any exercise program.
Avoid using ICE in one area for more than 45 minutes at a time, as this may cause frostbite.
The USDA recommends performing a certain amount of moderate intensity activities per week, to help maintain physical fitness and reduce your risk of certain diseases. If you perform a High Intensity activity, this will count for more than a moderate intensity activity. The estimated calories burned during each activity are based on a 5 feet 8 inch male, weighing 173 pounds. Heavier people will burn more calories and lighter people will burn less calories.


NEW TIPS FOR 75 CALORIE BURNING ACTIVITIES, AEROBICS
(some info from 10, 39, 40)
1. AEROBICS: 

How to: Try the gym or a video. These are exercises that last 15 to 60+ minutes, focusing on cardiovascular fitness, strength training & toning. Calories Burned: 550-700+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: High; 

Physical Therapy Advice: Ice & menthol cream may help with inflammation. Most injuries are in the legs, and include patellofemoral syndrome and tibial stress syndrome.
Injuries are preventable with adequate footwear, pacing of activity, regulating class attendance frequency, and gradually increasing activity (64).


2. AQUATIC EXERCISES:
How To: Many community centers offer water aerobics classes. Find out what time they start and bring a new swimming suit. Calories Burned: 300+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate

Physical Therapy Advice: Can help to decrease arthritic joint pain and other chronic pain syndromes -including fibromyalgia and sciatica. Overuse injuries may occur with insufficient rest days and excessive training. Risk of injury increases with age (67).

3. BASEBALL

How To: Popular American sport. Join a community team or consider softball, which is not as fast. Started hundreds of years ago in America, based on an older game from England. Calories Burned: 400 every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate  

Physical Therapy Advice: Fastball repetitive overhead throwing can cause injury to the shoulder and elbow joints such as shoulder labrum tears, rotator cuff inflammation, and joint laxity. Prevention includes joint muscle stabilization exercises such as shoulder rotation exercises with resistance.


4. BASKETBALL:
How To: Originated at a Christian school in Massachusetts, first using a soccer ball. Common American Sport. Most urban areas have teams & opportunities. Calories Burned: 550+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: High; 

Physical Therapy Advice: Common injuries include the knee ACL and patellofemoral pain. Injury prevention includes knee and ankle joint stabilization exercises such as repetitive squats with feet widened and toes pointed slightly outwards.


5. BICYCLE -STATIONARY:
How To: Most gyms have this equipment, it may be easier to ride & have a softer seat than a street bicycle. 

Calories Burned: 600+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: High (Moderate pace).

Physical Therapy Advice: Leg muscle strains and ligament sprains can be prevented with pacing and gradual increase of activity. Risk of  lacerations from equipment increases with age (68).

6. BICYCLE -STREET:
How To: Find local bicycle trails and paths and go for a safe ride. Calories Burned: 600+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: High (Moderate pace)

Physical Therapy Advice: Overuse injuries of the knee are common (IT band, patellofemoral pain, hamstring), yet usually mild with limited down time. Correct ergonomics can limit injuries, like raising seat height so that your knee straightens when pedaling. The most common traumatic injuries include the shoulder, clavicle, and cranium, so wear a helmet (69). 


7. BOXING BAG:
How To: Many gyms have boxing bags. Bring gloves with you to the gym. Calories Burned: 500+ every hour MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High 

Physical Therapy Advice: Most common injuries are of the cranium, neck, and hands. Always wear protective gear, to avoid injuries. Understand the dangers of competition, as head trauma can have lasting effects, including Parkinson’s and dementia (61).


8. CALISTHENICS:
How To: Uses your body’s own resistance to increase strength, endurance, and flexibility. Originated in ancient Greece. Examples include push-ups, pull-ups, jumping jacks, sit-ups, crunches, squats, lunges, calf raises, dips, scissor kicks, etc.
Calories Burned: 600+ every hour MIE Equivalent: High;

Physical Therapy Advice: Initially, do not perform too many repetitions of the same exercise, as this can cause inflammation. Ice or menthol cream can help relieve soreness. Risk of injury decreases as fitness level increases (70).


9. CANOEING/KAYAKING:
How To: In use for hundreds of years in North/South America, and Polynesia. Must wear a life jacket & be an experienced swimmer. Always go with a friend & follow safety precautions. 
Calories Burned: 400-600+ every hour, depending on intensity MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High 

Physical Therapy Advice: Good cardiovascular & upper body strengthening exercise. Strengthens the biceps, triceps, lats, deltoids, abdominals, trapezius, forearm muscles, and more. Common injuries include sprains and strains of joint, muscle, and ligaments of the upper body and can be somewhat limited by gradually increasing time in boat (71). Lacerations, abrasions, and head trauma may also occur with whitewater rafting and can have detrimental effects.


10. CHILD CARE: (More than one child/Moderate activity)

How To: Taking care of more than one child at a time: lifting, chasing, washing, raising. Your own children or daycare.
Calories Burned: 240+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate
Physical Therapy Advice: Remove small rugs that may slide and obstacles like long power cords, in order to prevent falls. When lifting, keep child close to your body and maintain upright spinal posture, to avoid back injuries.


11. CORE EXERCISES:
How To: Exercises that focus on core stabilizing muscles of the abdomen and spinal muscles. Examples include crunches, sit-ups, low back extensions, and trunk movements using a medicine ball, pole, or band. 
Calories Burned: 300-550+ every hour MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High
Physical Therapy Advice: Core exercises can be beneficial in stabilizing trunk & spine muscles to help prevent injury, especially to spinal discs and facet joints. While regular exercise provides nutrition and fitness to joints such as the spine, be careful not to twist or bend excessively while holding too much weight as this may cause spinal disc protrusion or herniation either instantaneously or over time (72).


12. DANCING
How To: Have an experienced instructor teach you. Examples: Ballroom, Latin, ballet, hip-hop, jazz, swing, break dance, aerobic dance, Polynesian, & Arabian.

Calories Burned: about 400-600+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High;

Physical Therapy Advice: Some dance moves can cause spinal arthritis & ligament damage, especially excessive spinal extension. Gradual increase in activity and proper footwear is important as most injuries occur in the legs, ankles, and knees (65). Ice helps relieve sudden swelling and inflammation.


13. ELLIPTICAL:
How To: Most gyms have this equipment & usually with a heart rate monitor. Can use arms and legs, in a circular motion.
Calories Burned: 600+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: High (High pace)
Physical Therapy Advice: Leg muscle strains and ligament sprains can be prevented with pacing and gradual increase of activity. Risk of lacerations

14. EXERCISE BANDS:
How To: Rubber or vinyl bands may be available at your gym or for purchase. Bands provide resistance for strength training and take up less room at home than other exercise equipment. May be used in combination with an aerobics routines.

Calories Burned: 300+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High.

Physical Therapy Advice: Bands are used in many physical therapy clinics and can be used for joint stabilization and strength training to help prevent future joint injuries during other activities.


15. FARM ANIMAL CARE:
How To: Livestock or farm animal care.

Calories Burned: 350-700+ every hour, depending on task MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High;

Physical Therapy Advice: A farmer’s job requires a strong body and the ability to work long hours in the outdoors, many times with heavy equipment, thus incidence of injury is high. When lifting, keep your body's center of gravity over its base of support (feet). Maintain upright spinal posture and push heavy objects rather than pull if you can. Keep heavy objects close to your body to prevent back strains and turn with feet rather than twisting back (76).


16. FIREFIGHTING:
How To: Although many positions are paid, some are voluntary.

Calories Burned: 240-700 every hour. MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High.

Physical Therapy Advice: Staying fit helps protect wrists & elbows from overuse syndromes and tendonitis. Keep your back vertical and use your legs when lifting heavier items. Back injury prevention includes practicing a simulated obstacle course along with an assessment of environment ergonomics. Individual knowledge of the “epidemiology of low back pain, anatomy and biomechanics, principles of back safety, correct lifting and handling techniques, correct posture, nutritional advice, stress management, exercises, and pain management” also play a role (77).


17. FISHING, WHILE WADING:
How To: Fresh or Saltwater fishing.

Calories Burned: 280+ every hour, MIE Equivalent: Moderate.

Physical Therapy Advice: Carry wire cutters, in case you get hooked. Lift heavy buckets close to your body, bend at knees, and turn with feet (not spine) to avoid spinal injury. Other common injuries include lacerations, especially on the hands and wrists, and may require quick medical evaluation due to risk of infection and tenosynovitis from rare but dangerous aquatic specific bacteria (78).

18. FOOTBALL (AMERICAN):
How To: Popular American sport. Many schools and communities have teams for participation. American invented in 1869, & evolved from English Rugby.
Calories Burned: 700 every hour, MIE Equivalent: High
Physical Therapy Advice: High incidence of injuries & concussions. Wear protective gear. Repetitive concussions can cause memory loss, Alzheimer's disease, or Parkinsonism. (61, 62) 


19. FRISBEE:
How To: Invented in California during the 20th century. Popular games include Frisbee golf, Ultimate Frisbee, and simple catch & throw.
Calories Burned: 400-600+ every hour, depending on intensity, MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High
Physical Therapy Advice: In general, low contact sport with few injuries. Proper footwear can help prevent severe ankle sprains.


20. GYMNASTICS:
How To: Many people start at an early age, but you can start at an older age. Developed by the Greeks & Romans.

Calories Burned: 450-700+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High.

Physical Therapy Advice: Over time, excessive bending can cause spinal arthritis. Wrist and forearm strains, knee injuries, ankle sprains, and other muscle overuse injuries can be prevented by gradually building routine intensity, strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination. Most acute injuries occur from falls and may be limited by using a proper landing surface, correct techniques, and safe musculoskeletal posture throughout movements (74).


21. HIKING (3 MPH):
How To: Trails are usually nearby urban areas, in hills, and mountains. Some trails can even be found within city limits, near city parks.

Calories
Burned: 300+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High.

Physical Therapy Advice: Falls cause most injuries while hiking. Wear hiking shoes to help prevent ankle sprains & strains. Be aware of your surroundings. Longer distances can cause paresthesias and numbness (ulnar, meraglia, tarsal, digitalgia, and other areas), but these symptoms usually subside quickly afterwards. Proper body weight, shoe ergonomics, and vitamins can reduce these abnormal sensations (79).


22.HOME CONSTRUCTION:
How To: Home repairs and new construction. 

Calories Burned: 350-700+ every hour, MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High.

Physical Therapy Advice: To prevent back injury, keep your body's center of gravity over its base of support (feet). Maintain upright spinal posture and push heavy objects rather than pull if you can. Keep heavy objects close to your body to prevent back strains and turn with feet rather than twisting back (76). Although older and younger people have similar frequencies of low back pain, those over age 55 may require longer periods of recovery and physical therapy (80).


23. HORSEBACK RIDING:
How To: Rent a horse, go on a guided tour, or buy a horse & rent space at a stable.

Calories Burned: 240+ every hour, MIE Equivalent: Moderate.
Physical Therapy Advice: Most common injuries are soft tissues and fractures to the upper extremities. Other types include concussions, leg injuries, and injuries to head and spine. Prevention strategies include adequate instruction, safe helmets, stirrups, knowledge of the horse’s behavioral patterns, and other body protection (81).


24. HOUSEWORK:
How To: Can be rewarding, with an organized & clean home afterwards. Involves vacuuming, washing, dusting, mopping, moving, etc.

Calories Burned: 350+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High.

Physical Therapy Advice: A low back strain is the most common injury. Avoid twisting of spine while using the vacuum or mop (82). Keep heavy objects close to your body to prevent back strains and turn with feet rather than your back (76).


25. HUNTING:
How To: Using rifle, bow, or other means.

Calories Burned: 400+ every hour. MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High.

Physical Therapy Advice: Hold rifle firmly against shoulder to avoid shoulder injury. Pay attention to your gun or bow. Falls from tree stands cause neurological injuries to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. Fall prevention includes limiting alcohol consumption while hunting, hunting in groups, using a harness, proper stand installation, and hunter safety education (83).


26. ICE SKATING:
How To: Have an experienced ice skater teach you the techniques. Consider hockey, dance, or racing as sports.

Calories Burned: 300-700 every hour, depending on intensity; MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High
Physical Therapy Advice: It may take several weeks to get used to the tight shoes and to strengthen your tendons and ligaments, so increase gradually as to avoid falls and common injuries like a shoulder dislocation, meniscus tear, groin strain, or hamstring strain.


27. ISOKINETICS:
How To: Although most gyms do not have Isokinetic machines available, Biodex & other companies make a machine used in physical therapy clinics, with a constant velocity for muscle contraction –all while providing varying resistance levels.
Calories Burned: 280+ every hour MIE Equivalent: Moderate
Physical Therapy Advice: This type of exercise is most useful for rehab under the direction of a physical therapist, to help stabilize joints following injury.


28. ISOMETRICS:
How To: This is simply any muscle contraction, without joint or extremity movement. Examples include pushing your spine against the back of a chair, tightening stomach muscles, or holding a certain position or pose without moving.
Calories Burned: 240+ every hour MIE Equivalent: Moderate
Physical Therapy Advice: Can help develop core strength and stability. Often used as an initial exercise for physical therapy rehabilitation following injury.

29. JUMP ROPE:
How to: Learn tricks like the criss-cross, double, and alternating feet. 
Calories Burned: 700+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High.
Physical Therapy Advice: Similar cardiovascular effects as running. If done gradually, it should not cause arthritis. Try incorporating some calisthenics into the routine. Research shows that jump roping helps strengthen the stabilizing muscles of the shoulder joint for overhead activities such as volleyball, gymnastics, and tennis (95).


30. LAYING BRICK/MASONRY:
How To: Learn how to make beautiful layouts.

Calories Burned: 500-700 + every hour; MIE Equivalent: High.

Physical Therapy Advice: To prevent back injury, keep your body's center of gravity over its base of support (feet). Maintain upright spinal posture and push heavy objects rather than pull if you can. Keep heavy objects close to your body to prevent back strains and turn with feet rather than twisting back (76). Although older and younger people have similar frequencies of low back pain, those over age 55 may require longer periods of recovery (80).


31. LIFTING WEIGHTS:
How To: Can be done at the gym or at home.

Calories Burned: 260-700+ every hour, depending on intensity (Circuit Training will increase intensity); MIE Equivalent: Moderate.

Physical Therapy Advice: Common injuries include the shoulder joint rotator cuff, lumbar spine, and knee. Wearing a weight belt increases rate of injury (89). Injury prevention includes gradual buildup of repetitions and weight, avoiding jerking movements, and using good body mechanics -especially of the lumbar
spine. Initially, increasing repetitions rather than weight will lower chance of injury. Apparatuses may use closed chain movements (hand or foot is fixed) –like on a machine, or open chain movements (hand or foot is not fixed) –like using a barbell. Open chain movements are usually more difficult and require more joint stabilizing muscle strength and balance.


32. MARCHING BAND:
How To: Many schools & communities have marching bands.

Calories Burned: 300 every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate.

Physical Therapy Advice: Musculoskeletal overuse problems are common among marching band members. Periods of long-standing and asymmetrical postures contribute to dysfunction. Adequate break times, erect posture, and stable footwear can help reduce common problems of the scapula, uneven hip
alignment, tight lateral shoulder rotators, inhibited neck flexors, decreased cervical spine rotation, and hand tendonitis (96).


33. MARTIAL ARTS:
How To: Latin, meaning “Arts of Mars (The Roman God of War).” There are several types: fencing, grappling, judo, karate, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, kickboxing, taekwondo, sumo, kung fu, and more.

Calories Burned: 300-800+ every hour, depending on intensity; MIE Equivalent: Moderate to Very High,

Physical Therapy Advice: Injuries can be limited by using proper blocking techniques, safety awareness of potentially dangerous moves like the turning kick (which causes half of all acute injuries in taekwondo), and keeping muscles strong that cross joints (75). Most acute injuries occur in the lower extremities, but may also occur in the head and neck -including a high incidence of concussions and contusions.


34. MEDICINE BALL:
How To: A heavy but soft ball 5 or 10+ pounds, sometimes more. Movements include throwing & passing with a partner & core movements to strengthen the abdominal and spinal muscles.
Calories Burned: 240-550 every hour, depending on intensity & weight; MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High.
Physical Therapy Advice: While regular exercise provides nutrition and fitness to joints such as the spine, be careful not to twist or bend excessively while holding too much weight as this may cause spinal disc protrusion or herniation either instantaneously or over time (72).


35. OBSTACLE COURSE:
How To: Many organizations sponsor “Mud Runs,” “Foam Runs,” or runs including an “Obstacle Course.” Tougher courses, like the “Iron Man”, require significant strength & endurance & can be dangerous.

Calories Burned: 700+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: High to Very High.  

Physical Therapy Advice: Start out with easier obstacles, and then move on. Concentrate on coordination, so as to avoid injury. Watch your feet & be careful on slippery surfaces, to avoid falls. Common injuries to avoid include those of the feet, knee, ankle, shoulder, and shin (90). Proper footwear, pacing, and stretching can help limit injuries.


36. PAINTING (HOUSE):
How To: Home, commercial.

Calories Burned: 350+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate.

Physical Therapy Advice: Follow safety precautions to prevent injury from falls. Common sites of injury include the lumbar spine, shoulder rotator cuff, and wrist/hand. Avoid injury by keeping your back vertical and use your legs when lifting heavier items, like 5 gallon paint buckets. Keep heavy objects close to your body to prevent back strains and turn with feet rather than twisting back (76). Pace your work and keep wrist in neutral position, to avoid tendonitis and inflammation.


37. PEG BOARD/CLIMBING ROPE:
How To: An apparatus bolted to a tall wall. Requires significant upper body strength to climb a wall using only your arms, grasping 2 pegs, which change holes as you climb. Ropes may be easier as they allow leg use.

Calories Burned: 800+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: Very High.
Physical Therapy Advice: Increases strength in the shoulders, biceps, and abdomen and helps to tone muscle shape in these areas (100). Requires strong shoulder rotator cuff muscles to stabilize joint while climbing. 

38. PILATES:
How To: 6 Principles: concentration, control, center, flow, precision, and breathing.

Calories Burned: 200-500 every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High.

Physical Therapy Advice: Beneficial for people with “poor body awareness and maladaptive movement patterns.” “May improve functional ability, movement confidence, body awareness, posture, and movement control.” May lower low back pain, except with acute conditions or pre-clampsia, a fracture, or Spondylolisthesis (101).


39. PLYOMETRICS:
How To: To increase power for quick strength & speed. Most exercises involve jumping, for example, jumping as high as you can. This works both concentric (controlled muscle shortening) & eccentric (controlled muscle lengthening) contractions, causing greater breakdown of muscle tissue and increasing future strength & power.

Calories Burned: 500-600 every hour; MIE Equivalent: High.

Physical Therapy Advice: May inflame the patellofemoral joint if not using proper body mechanics and knee alignment. Studies show plyometrics significantly increases jumping mechanics and capability (102).


40. PRE & POST NATAL:
How To: Talk to your physician about any restrictions you may have performing different exercises, walking, or running.

Calories Burned: Depends on the exercise; MIE Equivalent: Depends on the exercise.
Physical Therapy Advice: Pilates has been shown to increase sleep quality in postpartum women (103). If you experience any pain, such as low back pain during exercise, consult your physician.


41. PUSHING LAWN MOWER:
How To: Pushing the lawn mower, rather than riding or other automation, can be good exercise.

Calories Burned: 400+ every hour. MIE Equivalent: Moderate.
Physical Therapy Advice: A low back strain is the most common injury. Avoid twisting of spine while pushing lawn mower, and instead move your feet (82).


42. RACE-WALKING, over 5 MPH:
How To: One foot on the ground at all times.

Calories Burned: 600+ every hour. MIE Equivalent: High.

Physical Therapy Advice: Wear proper walking shoes to protect your feet and ankles from strains & sprains. Most injuries occur in the “Foot (18.9%), knee (16.7%), ankle (13.3%), and shoulder (8.9%) (90).” Proper footwear, pacing, and stretching can help limit injuries. Walking in cooler weather, such as a summer morning -instead of summer’s mid-day, can help prevent dehydration and heat stroke.


43. RACQUETBALL:

How To: Many Athletic Clubs have racquetball courts. Invented in America in 1950.

Calories Burned: 600+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: High,

Physical Therapy Advice: Gradual buildup and warming up, proper swing and follow through, help prevent injuries like lateral elbow tendonitis, rotator cuff pain, ankle sprains, and patellofemoral pain. Wrist extensor strength helps prevent injury or speeds recovery of lateral elbow tendonitis (73).


44. ROCK CLIMBING:
How To: Requires significant upper body strength.

Calories Burned: 800 + every hour; MIE Equivalent: High to Very High.

Physical Therapy Advice: Start gradually & take extra care of your hands and wrists, as these must sustain your body weight. Most injuries are from overuse of the upper limbs, mainly the hand, elbow, and shoulder (104). Injury prevention includes keeping stabilizing joint muscles strong and gradually increasing climbing time.


45. ROLLER SKATING:
How To: Invented a few hundred years ago in Europe.

Calories Burned: 300-700 every hour, depending on speed MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High.

Physical Therapy Advice: Compared to skateboarding, most injuries are minor, to the upper extremities or head and occur in recreational areas. Injury prevention includes wearing helmet, wrist guards, and kneepads. Other injury sites include the lower extremities (105).


46. ROWING (CREW RACING):
How To: Although in use for thousands of years around the world, modern rowing races began in England. Most modern race boats are long & skinny, allowing them to cut through the water at faster speeds.

Calories Burned: 600-800+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High
Physical Therapy Advice: Good cardiovascular & upper body strengthening exercise. Common injuries include sprains and strains of joint, muscle, and ligaments of the upper body and can be somewhat limited by gradually increasing time in boat (71). Learn proper rowing techniques to prevent forearm, knee, & back strains.


47. RUGBY:

How To: Invented at Rugby School in 19th Century England, based on earlier English football games. Precursor to American Football.

Calories Burned: 700+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: High 
Physical Therapy Advice: A contact sport with risk of concussions. Wear protective gear and warm up to help prevent common injuries like shoulder dislocations, rotator cuff inflammation, finger sprains, and hamstring strains.


48. RUNNING (6 MPH):

How To: Start out slowly running short distances.

Calories Burned: 760 every hour; MIE Equivalent: High.

Physical Therapy Advice: Begin slowly & do not increase distance more than 10% weekly, in order to prevent ligament and tendon injury. Avoid “slapping” your feet too hard on the ground, especially when running downhill, as this can cause "shin splints" or constricting anterior compartment edema. Keep an even pace, and don’t start out too fast. If done gradually, it should not cause arthritis, and is good for joints. Most common sites of injury are the “knee (32.1%), ankle (18.3%), foot (11.9%), and shin (7.3%) (90).” Proper footwear, pacing, and stretching can help limit injuries. Running in cooler weather, such as a summer morning -instead of summer’s mid-day, can help prevent dehydration and heat stroke.


49. SAILING:
How To: Be aware of weather conditions.

Calories Burned: 300-500+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate.

Physical Therapy Advice: Keep your back vertical & use your legs when lifting heavier items, to prevent disc injury. Most injuries occur to the upper and lower extremities, as well as the head. In order of most common occurrence: contusions, lacerations, sprain/strain, concussion, and dislocation. Causes include falls, caught in lines, and hit by an object. Injury prevention includes proper footwear, body mechanics, less clutter, and more ergonomic deck layout (106).


50. SHOVELING DIRT OR CHOPPING WOOD:
How To: Often required when digging holes or trenches, moving earth or mulch, or farm animal care.
Calories Burned: 400-700+ every hour, depending on intensity MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High
Physical Therapy Advice: Good for building upper body strength & endurance. Check equipment each time before use. Avoid excessive twisting that can injure intervertebral discs.

51. SKATEBOARDING:
How To: Many cities have skate parks. Started in California for surfers.
Calories Burned: 240+ every hour, depending on intensity. MIE Equivalent: Moderate.

Physical Therapy Advice: Common sites of injury include the head and upper and lower extremities, and are more commonly severe than roller skating injuries. Concussions can cause brain injury. Wear a helmet, wrist, and knee guards (105).


52. SKIING (CROSSCOUNTRY):
How To: Have someone experienced teach you. Originated from Norway.
Calories Burned: 550+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: High

Physical Therapy Advice: Wear protective & warm gear. Overuse injuries may occur with insufficient rest days and excessive training. Although both are at risk, older people have a higher incidence of degeneration and tendon injuries (67)


53. SKIING (DOWNHILL):
How To: Have an experienced instructor teach you & start out on a small slope. Sometimes shorter skis are easier to learn on. Originated from Norway.
Calories Burned: 500+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High.
Physical Therapy Advice: Can be dangerous, if not careful. Knee ACL tears are common; as well as broken leg bones & strained muscles, trauma to the central nervous system & spine, and injuries to the abdomen and chest (66).


54. SOCCER (FOOTBALL):
How To: Popular international sport that began in England, but based on previous kicking games.

Calories Burned: 700+ every hour, competitively; MIE Equivalent: High.

Physical Therapy Advice: Most injuries occur in the lower extremities, including muscles, tendons, and ligaments of the knee and ankle -as well as groin strains. Injury prevention strategies include keeping your lower extremity muscles strong, wearing proper footwear, and staying well hydrated. Other less common injuries include concussions, face injuries, and heat strokes (91). Careful not to twist knees too much when foot is planted on ground as this may tear your knee’s ACL (anterior cruciate ligament). Ice can help decrease inflammation following an intense game.

55. SPINNING:
How To: This is a group bicycling class offered at many gyms. An instructor pushes the class to increase intensity. Most bicycles are thin and specially made for spinning. They usually play music and may dim the lights.
Calories Burned: 600+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: High to Very High
Physical Therapy Advice: Leg muscle strains and ligament sprains can be prevented with pacing and gradual increase of activity. Risk of lacerations from equipment increases with age (68).


56. STABILIZING EXERCISES:
How To: Focus on joint stabilization & joint strength –to prevent injury. Examples include rotational movements for the shoulder ball & socket joint and squat positions focusing on the Vastus Medialis Obliques muscle of the knee joint.

Calories Burned: 240+ every hour. MIE Equivalent: Moderate.

Physical Therapy Advice: Knee stability strength helps reduce osteoarthritis pain and instability (107). Rotator cuff and scapular exercises help reduce shoulder injury and pain (108). Persons with chronic low back pain, instability, or a history of trauma can benefit from lumbar stability exercises, only if recommended by their physician (109).


57. STAIRS, RUNNING:
How To: Find a large flight of stairs nearby.

Calories Burned: 1100+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: High to Very High.

Physical Therapy Advice: Very intense activity requiring gradual increases. Risk of injury from falls, especially when going downhill. Most common sites of injury are the “knee (32.1%), ankle (18.3%), foot (11.9%), and shin (7.3%) (90).” Proper footwear, pacing, and stretching can help limit injuries. Running in cooler weather, such as a summer morning -instead of summer’s mid-day, can help prevent dehydration and heat stroke.


58. STAIR STEPPER:
How To: Most gyms have this equipment or you can get your own.
Calories Burned: 700+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: High (Moderate pace).

Physical Therapy Advice: Excessive time initially may produce thigh cramping and inflammation. Lower impact forces than running. Helps to tone the gluteal muscles, hip, & thigh areas. Leg muscle strains and ligament sprains can be prevented with pacing and gradual increase of activity. Risk of lacerations from equipment increases with age (68).


59. STEP-UPS:
How To: This is usually performed on a single step & often incorporated into an aerobics routine. It focuses on leg strength & endurance, especially the quadriceps muscles.
Calories Burned: 600+ every hour MIE Equivalent: High.

Physical Therapy Advice: Most injuries include patellofemoral syndrome and tibial stress syndrome and can be limited with adequate footwear, pacing of activity, regulating class attendance frequency (64).


60. SURFING:
How To: Invented centuries ago by Polynesians. Advanced swimmers only.

Calories Burned: 240+ every hour. MIE Equivalent: Moderate.
Physical Therapy Advice: Understand rip currents and other dangers. Most common injuries are to the lower limbs and include contusions and lacerations, followed by sprains, strains, and dislocations. Other injury sites include the upper limbs, head/neck, and torso. As most injuries involve the board, safety measures such as “using [a] nose guard, less sharp edges and rubber made keels” may help decrease incidents (110).


61. SWIMMING:
How To: Begin slowly, increasing distance about 10% weekly.

Calories Burned: 600+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High.

Physical Therapy Advice: This is a great exercise to strengthen most muscles in the body. Helps to stabilize joints, especially the shoulder ball & socket. Can
relieve arthritis and chronic pain. Although injury rates are much lower compared to other sports, overuse injuries especially of the shoulder, may occur with insufficient rest days and excessive training (111). 


62. TAI CHI: 太极掌
How To: It is a Chinese martial art. Focuses on a straight spine & core breathing, with slow movements of the hands & arms. The inner core is stillness (wuji), around which the yin & yang rotate.

Calories Burned: 300 + every hour. MIE Equivalent: Moderate.

Physical Therapy Advice: Can greatly increase your balance, helping to prevent falls. Helps reduce pain, fatigue, and arthritis, increase postural control, used as therapy for osteoporosis, and helps deal with stress and depression. Sprains are the most common injury and can occur from increasing exercise time and intensity too fast (112).

 
63. TENNIS:
How To: Many parks & schools offer tennis courts at little to no cost. Sport from England, but based on a French game.
Calories Burned: 550+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High
Physical Therapy Advice: Gradual buildup and warming up, along with proper swing and follow through, are important prevention strategies to avoid common tennis injuries like lateral elbow tendonitis (Tennis elbow), shoulder rotator cuff pain, ankle sprains, and patellofemoral pain. Evidence also shows that increased wrist extensor strength can help prevent injury or speed recovery following Tennis Elbow injury (73).


64. TRUCK LOADING:
How To: Involves heavy lifting.

Calories Burned: 600+ every hour; MIE  Equivalent: High.

Physical Therapy Advice: To prevent back injury, keep your center of gravity over its base of support (feet). Maintain upright posture and push heavy objects rather than pull if you can. Keep heavy objects close to your body and turn with feet rather than twisting back (76). Although older and younger people have similar frequencies of low back pain, those over age 55 may require longer periods of recovery (80).


65. TUMBLING:
How To: type of gymnastics that does not require equipment. Examples of moves include the summersault, cartwheel, front & back flips, roundoff, and handspring.

Calories Burned: 500+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High.

Physical Therapy Advice: Over time, excessive bending can cause spinal arthritis. Wrist and forearm strains, knee injuries, ankle sprains, and other muscle overuse injuries can be prevented by gradually building routine intensity and strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination. Most acute injuries occur from falls and may be limited by using a proper landing surface, correct techniques, and safe musculoskeletal posture throughout movements (74).

 
66. UPPER BODY ERGOMETER:
How To: Uses your upper body to move a cycle.
Calories Burned: 600+ every hour, depending on speed MIE Equivalent: High
Physical Therapy Advice: Consider wearing gloves to protect your hands at high speeds. Be aware that your heart rate may increase substantially with intense & repetitive upper body motions.


67. VOLLEYBALL:
How To: Popular sport created in 1895 at a Massachusetts YMCA.
Calories Burned: 240-600 every hour, depending on intensity; MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High.

Physical Therapy Advice: Most injuries occur from repetitive jumping and overhead hits and the ankle is the most commonly injured. The knee, spine, shoulder, and hands are also common. Maintaining strong stabilizing shoulder rotator cuff muscles and wearing proper footwear can help prevent injuries (84).


68. WALKING (3 MPH):
How To: One foot on the ground at all times.

Calories Burned: 260+ every hour. MIE Equivalent: Moderate.

Physical Therapy Advice: Studies suggest that walking 10,000 a day will help you lose weight (94). Most injuries occur in the “Foot (18.9%), knee (16.7%), ankle (13.3%), and shoulder (8.9%) (90).” Proper footwear, pacing, and stretching can help limit injuries. Walking in cooler weather, such as a summer morning - instead of summer’s mid-day, can help prevent dehydration and heat stroke. Longer distances can cause paresthesias and numbness (ulnar, meraglia, tarsal, digitalgia, and other areas), but these symptoms usually subside quickly afterwards. Proper body weight, shoe ergonomics, and vitamins can reduce these abnormal sensations (79).


69. WATER SKIING:
How To: Must be an experienced swimmer.

Calories Burned: 480 every hour. MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High.

Physical Therapy Advice: When beginning, limit time on skis as muscle soreness & cramping may develop during the hours following. Lower extremity strains and sprains are the most common injuries although upper body and trunk strains may also occur. Injury prevention includes gradual increase in ski time/ intensity and maintaining strong joint muscles (113).


70. WHEELCHAIR RACING:
How To: Useful exercise for people who cannot exercise with their legs.
Calories Burned: 600+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: High.  

Physical Therapy Advice: Start out slowly and wear gloves to prevent blisters. Protect your wrists & other upper body joints from overuse with gradual increase in exercise. Shoulder rotator cuff and scapular exercises have been shown to help prevent or reduce shoulder pain in wheelchair users (108).


71. WHITEWATER RAFTING:
How To: In use for hundreds of years in North/South America.

Calories Burned: 300+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate.

Physical Therapy Advice: Good cardiovascular & upper body strengthening exercise. Common injuries include sprains and strains of joint, muscle, and ligaments of the upper body and can be somewhat limited by gradually increasing time in boat (71). Lacerations, abrasions, and head trauma may also occur with white-water rafting and can have detrimental effects.


72. WINDSURFING:
How To: Performed on rivers, lakes, and the ocean.

Calories Burned: 240-500+ every hour, depending on intensity. MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High.

Physical Therapy Advice: Most injuries occur from improper techniques after 1-2 hours of exercise, with increased risk in high winds and underestimating weather conditions. The most common injuries are bruises or contusions, as well as fractures, and ligament ruptures. Research suggests that taking a break after 60 minutes of windsurfing can help reduce injuries, especially those caused by difficult maneuvers like the front and backward loops. Keeping physically fit with strong joint muscles can also prevent injuries (93).


73. WRESTLING:
How To: Freestyle or Folk style. Invented thousands of years ago.
Calories Burned: 800+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: High to Very High.
Physical Therapy Advice: Most common injuries are to the hands and wrists as well as the knees (86). Auricular hematomas of the ear are common, but can be limited by use of headgear. In extreme cases surgical excision of the traumatized fibroneocartilaginous tissue may be indicated (85).  Other common injury sites include the face, spine, and shoulders. Injuries can be limited by taping fingers and/or wrists, staying fit, and maintaining strong muscular stability in joints.

74. YARD WORK:

How To: Basic yard work outside.

Calories Burned: 350+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate to High.

Physical Therapy Advice: Use a small cushion to kneel on to protect your knees from contusions and bursitis. Take special care when reaching overhead or when on a ladder to prevent falls. When trimming, the most common acute injuries involve lacerations and punctures of the arms and hands and can be limited by using gloves and awareness of the tools you are using (92). Correct ergonomic posture of the spine and avoiding jerking movements can also prevent lumbar strains.


75. YOGA:
How To: From ancient India. A balance of Mental & Physical health.
Calories Burned: 200+ every hour; MIE Equivalent: Moderate.

Physical Therapy Advice: Has been shown to lower blood pressure and heart rate, and help maintain a lower BMI (87). It has also been shown to decrease
symptoms of depression and increase quality of sleep (88). In some cases, may produce headaches, cause wrist numbness, & spinal strains -in extreme positions. Gradually increasing pose time, avoiding jerking movements, and maintaining stable joints can help reduce injury rates.